Race and the Occult Reich

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012

"Two worlds face one another - darkness and light.
The Jew is the anti-man, the creature of a lesser god.
He must have come from another root of the human race.
I set the Aryan and the Jew over against each other; and if I call one of them a human being, I must call the other something else.
The two are as widely separated as man and beast."

"Creation is not finished.
Man is clearly approaching a phase of metamorphosis.
The earlier human species has already reached the stage of dying out....
All of the force of creation will be concentrated in a new species... which will surpass infinitely modern man.... And we shall rejuvenate the world. "

"Do you now appreciate the depth of our National Socialist Movement ? 
Can there be anything greater and more all comprehending ? 
Those who see in National Socialism nothing more than a political movement know scarcely anything of it. 
It is more even than religion; it is the will to create mankind anew !"

Adolf Hitler
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012
Race has been described as 'the family writ large' - and there have been many forms of racism, but the most prevalent has been anti-Semitism.
Although many may be surprised, 'die Judenfrage' was not the main concern of those in Germany who would follow a racial philosophy.
The real concern was primarily 'Rassenhygiene' (which included the longed for 'Endlösung' with regard to the 'die Judenfrage'), which sought to bring to a halt all degeneration of the Aryan racial stock, and then looked to a continuing racial and spiritual 'regeneration' of that stock - in order to create the racial foundation on which would be built the final exaltation of the Aryan race.
The problem of  'Rassenhygiene' was seen essentially as Rassenfrage (a question of race).
It was held that degeneration had occurred as a result of miscegenation.
Miscegenation - (from the Latin 'miscere' 'to mix' and 'genus' "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The term miscegenation has been used since the 19th century to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations, and more generally to the process of genetic admixture. The concept of miscegenation is tied to concepts of racial difference.
There had, throughout recorded history been a continuation of  miscegenation occurring between the Aryans and the 'Untermenschen' (lesser races), resulting in the gradual dilution of the purity of the Aryan racial stock.
Völkisch occultists maintained that the Aryan race was the creation of the Æons, having descended directly from the heavens.
It was maintained that the Aryan blood was infused with the spiritual nature of the 'ever-living' Æons - giving the Aryans super-human powers - now much reduced by racial dilution.
Other humanoid forms (chimpanzees and other great apes - the creations of a lesser 'god' - the Demiurge), it was held, had crossbred with Aryans in the distant past, giving rise to the various 'Untermenschen' (lesser races) still in existence - or not, as in the case of the Neanderthals - (with the Jews as the most developed, and the Polynesians and Negroes at the lower end of the scale - see Lanz von Liebenfells).
Which brings us to the subject of Anti-Semitism.

Historical Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism is suspicion of, hatred toward, or discrimination against Jews.
While the term's etymology might suggest that antisemitism is directed against all Semitic peoples, the term was coined in the late 19th century in Germany as a more scientific-sounding term for 'Judenhass' ('Jew-hatred'), and that has been its normal use since then.

The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced back to Alexandria (see left) in the 3rd century BC.

Alexandria was home to the largest Jewish community in the world and the Septuagint (see right), a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced there.
Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian of that time, wrote scathingly of the Jews and his themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus, Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in Apion and Tacitus.
Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the practices of the Jews and the 'absurdity of their Law', making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus was able to invade Jerusalem in 320 BCE because its inhabitants were observing the 'Shabbat' (day of rest).

One of the earliest anti-Jewish edicts, promulgated by Antiochus Epiphanes (see right) in about 170–167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees in Judea.
In view of Manetho's anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have originated in Egypt and been spread by 'the Greek retelling of Ancient Egyptian prejudices'.
The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria (see left) describes an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.
The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes.
Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers.
Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews' refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out.
Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses 'in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life'.

There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision, Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc.
Examples may also be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BC.
Philo of Alexandria described an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.
Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions.
According to Suetonius, the emperor Tiberius (see left) expelled from Rome Jews who had gone to live there.

Anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution against Jews in many places, with blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and massacres.
A main justification of prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious.
The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades.
In the First Crusade (1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were destroyed. In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were subject to several massacres.
The Jews were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds' Crusades of 1251 and 1320.
The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, the expulsion of 100,000 Jews in France; and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria.
Many of the expelled Jews fled to Poland.

In medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre - see left) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer - see right), who combed European promoting antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.

Antisemitism in Europe before the Enlightenment was essentially 'religious antisemitism'.
Under this version of antisemitism, attacks would often stop if Jews stopped practicing or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion, and sometimes, liturgical exclusion of Jewish converts (the case of Christianized Marranos or Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century convicted of secretly practicing Judaism or Jewish customs).
Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, religious antisemitism, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times.
Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, 'most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests, and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like'.
William Nichols draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: 'The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion . . . a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism'.
From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however, "... the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism".
From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between 'religious' and 'racial' forms of hostility towards Jews.
Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear.

European and German Anti-Semitism

In 1879, Wilhelm Marr (see left) founded the Antisemiten-Liga (Antisemitic League).
Identification with antisemitism and as an antisemite was politically advantageous in Europe in the latter 19th century, for example, Karl Lueger (see right), the popular mayor of fin de siècle Vienna, skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of channeling public discontent to his political advantage.
In its 1910 obituary of Lueger, The New York Times notes that Lueger was "Chairman of the Christian Social Union of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union of the Diet of Lower Austria".

In 1895 A. C. Cuza organized the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest.
In the period before World War II, when animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, organization, or political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic.
After Hitler's fall from power, the term 'antisemitism' acquired pejorative connotations.
This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just decades earlier when 'Jew' was used as a pejorative term.

Racial anti-Semitism is prejudice against Jews as a racial/ethnic group, rather than Judaism as a religion.
Racial anti-Semitism is the idea that the Jews are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior.
It more specifically claimed that the 'Nordic' Europeans were superior.
Racial anti-Semites saw the Jews as part of a Semitic race, and emphasized their 'alien' extra-European origins and culture.
They saw Jews as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority religion.
Anthropologists discussed whether the Jews possessed any Arabic-Armenoid, African-Nubian or Asian-Turkic ancestries.
Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with the hatred of Jews as a group.
In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the emancipation of the Jews, Jews rapidly urbanized, and experienced a period of greater social mobility.
With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.
Religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds.
In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western European countries.
The old laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded.
Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial anti-Semitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (see right) and particularl his 'Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race' of 1853–5
Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity, known as 'ethno-nationalism', usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race.
Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower races of human beings.
Such theories, usually posited by white Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.

Anti-Semitism and Romanticism

In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner (see left) published 'Das Judenthum in der Musik' ("Jewishness in Music") under a pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.
The essay began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner's contemporaries (and rivals) Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews of being a harmful and alien element in German culture.
Anti-Semitism can also be found in many of the Grimms' 'Fairy Tales' by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (see right), published from 1812 to 1857.
It is mainly characterized by Jews being the villain of a story, such as in "The Good Bargain (Der gute Handel)" and "The Jew Among Thorns" (Der Jude im Dorn).

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
Thule Society
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
The ideological origins of German National Socialism derive from Romanticism, German idealism, the works of Richard Wagner, Western Occultism and eugenics.
Such ideas, as espoused by the Ariosophical Germanenorden (German Order) and the Thule Society influenced Adolf Hitler's world-view.
One of the most significant ideological influences on the National Socialists came from the German nationalist Johann Gottlieb Fichte (see right), whose works Hitler read, and who was recognized by other Thule members including Dietrich Eckart.
In 'Speeches to the German Nation' (1808), written amid Napoleonic France's occupation of Berlin, Fichte called for a German national revolution against the French occupiers, making passionate public speeches, arming his students for battle against the French, and stressing the need of action by the German nation to free itself.

Dietrich Eckart
Fichte's nationalism was populist and opposed to traditional elites, and spoke of the need of a "People's War" (Volkskrieg).
Fichte promoted German exceptionalism and stressed the need for the German nation to be purified.
Fichte was anti-Semitic, and accused Jews in Germany of having been, and inevitably continuing to be, a "state within a state" in Germany that was a threat to German national unity.
Fichte promoted two options to address this: the first was the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine to impel the Jews to leave Europe.
The other option was violence against Jews, saying that the goal would be "To cut off all their heads in one night, and set new ones on their shoulders, which should not contain a single Jewish idea".
Beginning in the 1870s, German völkisch nationalism began to adopt anti-Semitic and racist themes and was adopted by a number of radical right political movements.
Völkisch nationalism denounced soulless materialism, individualism, and secularized urban industrial society, while advocating a 'superior' society based on ethnic German 'folk' culture and way of life, based upon German 'blood'.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
It also denounced foreigners, foreign ideas and declared that Jews, national minorities, Catholics, and Freemasons were 'traitors to the nation' and unworthy of inclusion in the German Volk.
Völkisch nationalism saw the world in terms of natural law and romanticism, and viewed societies as organic.
It also extolled the virtues of rural life, condemned the neglect of tradition and decay of morals, denounced the destruction of the natural environment, and condemned 'cosmopolitan' cultures such as the 'culture' of the Jews.
The concept of the Aryan race espoused by Hitler stems from racial theories asserting that Europeans are the descendants of Indo-Iranian settlers, people of ancient India and ancient Persia.
Proponents of this theory based their assertion on the similarity of European words and their meaning to those of Indo-Iranian languages.

Johann Gottfried Herder 
Johann Gottfried Herder argued that the Germanic peoples held close racial connections with the ancient Indians and ancient Persians, who he claimed were advanced peoples possessing a great capacity for wisdom, nobility, restraint, and science.

Arthur de Gobineau
Contemporaries of Herder utilized the concept of the Aryan race to draw a distinction between what they deemed 'high and noble' Aryan culture versus that of 'parasitic' Semitic culture.
Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority combined in the nineteenth century, with white supremacists maintaining that white people were members of an Aryan 'master race' that is superior to all other races, and particularly superior to the Semitic race, which they associated with 'cultural sterility'.
Arthur de Gobineau (see right), a French racial theorist and aristocrat, blamed the fall of the ancien régime in France on racial degeneracy caused by racial intermixing, which he argued destroyed the purity of the Aryan race.
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan and Jewish cultures.

Anti-Semitism in the 19th Century

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
Chamberlain's great and seminal work, 'Die Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts' - (Foundations of the Nineteenth Century) - (1899) praised Aryan peoples for their creativity and idealism, while asserting that the Germanic spirit was threatened by a "Jewish" spirit of selfishness and materialism.
Chamberlain used his thesis to promote conservatism, while denouncing democracy, liberalism, and socialism.
The book became popular, especially in Germany.
Chamberlain stressed the need of a nation to maintain racial purity in order to prevent degeneration, and argued that racial intermingling with Jews should never be permitted.
In 1923, Chamberlain met Hitler, whom he admired as a leader of the rebirth of the free spirit.

The racial policy positions of the Third Reich were also developed from the views of important biologists of the 19th century, including French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (see left) and the founder of genetics, German botanist Gregor Mendel (see left).
In particular the variant developed by Ernst Haeckel, was utilized by the National Socialists
Unlike Darwinian theory, Lamarckian theory officially ranked races in a hierarchy of evolution from apes, while Darwin's (see right below) theory did not grade races in a hierarchy of higher or lower evolution from apes, simply categorizing humans as a whole of all as having progressed in evolution from apes.
Many Lamarckians viewed "lower" races as having been exposed to debilitating conditions for too long for any significant "improvement" of their condition in the near future.

Haeckel (see left) utilized Lamarckian theory to describe the existence of interracial struggle and put races on a hierarchy of evolution, ranging from being wholly human to subhuman.
Mendelism was supported by the National Socialists, and also mainstream eugenics proponents at the time were Mendelian.
Mendelian theory of inheritance declared that genetic traits and attributes were passed from one generation to another.
Proponents of eugenics used Mendelian inheritance theory to demonstrate the transfer of biological illness and impairments from parents to children, including mental disability; others also utilized Mendelian theory to demonstrate the inheritance of social traits, with racialists claiming a racial nature of certain general traits.
Hitler viewed race as being in a hierarchy, and spoke of the 'aristocratic idea of nature', in which there existed an inequality of races where the superior and higher values of the Aryan race was the basis of all civilization.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015

Race and Theosophy
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012

This emphasis on Race initially stemmed from Madame Blavastsky's (see left) Theosophical (see right) speculations on the Root races, as expressed in 'Die Geheimlehre' (The Secret Doctrine - 1888).
Root Races, according to Madame Blavastsky, were said to have existed on now-lost continents.

Blavatsky's model was developed by later theosophists, most notably William Scott-Elliot in 'The Story of Atlantis' (1896) and 'The Lost Lemuria' (see left) (1904), although German Occultists favoured Thule (see right) - hence the Thule Gesselschaft' (see left below)

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012
William Scott-Elliot (sometimes spelled Scott-Elliott) (d.1930) was a theosophist who elaborated Helena Blavatsky's concept of root races in several publications.
Scott-Elliot was an investment banker and amateur anthropologist.
An early member of the London Lodge of the Theosophical society, in 1893 he wrote 'The Evolution of Humanity'.
Scott-Elliot came into contact with theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater (see right) who said he received knowledge about ancient Atlantis and Lemuria from the Theosophical Masters by "astral clairvoyance."
Charles Webster Leadbeater
Leadbeater transmitted his clairvoyant findings to Scott-Elliot, who undertook scholarly research to back them up.
Despite Leadbeater's contributions, Scott-Elliot was listed as the sole author of the resulting book 'The Story of Atlantis', which was published with a preface by Alfred Percy Sinnett.

In 1899 he was awarded the T. Subba Row Medal for his contributions to 'esoteric science and philosophy'.
In 1904 he added detail on Lemuria in 'The Lost Lemuria', attempting to use contemporary scientific evidence to back up Leadbeater's claims.

Annie Besant (see left) further developed the model in 'Man: Whence, How and Whither' (1913).
Both Besant and Scott-Elliot relied on information from Charles Webster Leadbeater obtained by "astral clairvoyance".

Some theosophical writers, attempting to reconcile current geological science with some earlier theosophical teachings, equated Lemuria with the former supercontinent of Gondwanaland (see right).

Early theosophical teachings, however, agree with the original statements of Eduard Suess (see left), who argued that Gondwanaland consisted of parts of the present continents in their present positions, but joined to one another by other lands that have since been submerged.

Atlantis (see right), in the Theosophical cosmology, was a continent that covered a significant part of what is now the Atlantic Ocean.
Atlanits is significant for he Occult Reich as it is equated with Thule and the origins of the Aryan race.
As Rauschning wrote:

"Fundamentally, every German has one foot in Atlantis, where he seeks a better Fatherland and a better patrimony.
This double nature of the Germans, this faculty they have of splitting their personality which enables them to live in the real world and at the same time to project themselves into an imaginary world, is especially noticeable in Hitler and provides the key to his magic socialism."

The large continent of Atlantis is said to have "first divided, and then broken later on into seven peninsulas and islands".
When the main part of Atlantis began to sink, Atlantean settlers migrated to the new lands which were rising to the east, west, and south.
These new lands became the Americas, Africa, parts of Asia, and the present European countries, stretching from the Ural mountains of Russia, westward to include the islands of Ireland and Britain, and even farther westward than that in former times.
Some emigrants from the remaining islands in the Atlantic settled on new islands to the east which later consolidated into what is now the district of the Abyssinian highlands and lands somewhat to the north.

Atlantis perished through flooding and submergence in 9,564 BC, and its destruction is explained by claiming successive disturbances in the axial rotation of Earth which caused earthquakes which led to the sudden sinking of Atlantis.


for more informatiom about Root Races see: 'The Secret Doctrine'

The first root race was "ethereal", i.e. they were composed of etheric matter.
They reproduced by asexual reproduction.
Earth was still cooling at that time.
The first mountain to arise out of the stormy primeval ocean was Mount Meru.


The second root race lived in Hyperborea.
The second root race was colored golden yellow.
Hyperborea included what is now Northern Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Northern Asia, and Kamchatka.
The climate was tropical because Earth had not yet developed an axial tilt.
The second root race has no present-day descendents.


The third root race, the Lemurian, was black  (see right) and lived in Lemuria.
Lemuria, according to Theosophists, existed in a large part of what is now the Indian Ocean and included also Australia and in addition extended into the South Pacific Ocean; its last remnants are the Australian continent, the island of New Guinea, and the island of Madagascar. Lemuria sank gradually and was eventually destroyed by incessantly erupting volcanoes.
As Lemuria was slowly submerged due to volcanic eruptions, the Lemurians colonized the areas surrounding Lemuria, i.e. Africa, Southern India, and the East Indies.
The descendants of the Lemurian root race according to traditional Theosophy include the Capoid race, the Congoid race, the Dravidians, and the Australoid race.


The fourth root race, the Atlantean, according to Theosophy arose in Africa from the fourth subrace of the Lemurians in a part of Africa that had been colonized by that subrace in the area now inhabited by the Ashanti.
Theosophists believe the Atlantean root race was physically progenerated by the Chankshusha Manu.
After they arose in Africa, they left Africa and colonized the continent of Atlantis.
The Atlantean root race had Mongolian features (see left); they began with golden brown skin and gradually evolved into the red American Indian, brown Malayan, and yellow Mongolian races, because some Atlanteans eventually migrated to the Americas and Asia.

The seven subraces of the Atlantean root race were:

the Rmoahal
the Tlavati (Cro-Magnons)
the Toltec (a term which Theosophists use as a synonym for American Indians)
the Turanian
the (original) Semites (e.g., the Phoenicians)
the Akkadians, and
the Mongolian, which migrated to and colonized East Asia.
The descendants of the Atlanteans according to traditional Theosophy include those of the Mongolian race, the Malayan race, and the American Indian race (see right) as well as some people of what in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was called the "olive-skinned" Mediterranean race.


The Aryan Root Race -  Siegfried
© Copyright Zac Sawyer 2015
Blavatsky asserted humanity was presently in the fifth root race, the Aryan race, which Theosophists believe to have emerged from the previous fourth root race (Atlantean root race)  in Atlantis. 
The small band of only 9,000 people constituting the then small Aryan root race migrated out of Atlantis in 79,797 BC.
A small group of these Aryan migrants from Atlantis split from the main body of migrants and went south to the shore of an inland sea in what was then a verdant and lush Sahara where they founded the "City of the Sun".

The main body of migrants continued onwards to an island called the "white island" in the middle of what was then an inland sea in what is now the Gobi desert (see left), where they established the "City of the Bridge".
Generally speaking, a large percentage of the people who live in the time of the period of the fifth root race are part of the fifth root race, however, Blavatsky also opines that some Semitic peoples have become "degenerate in spirituality".
She asserted that some peoples descended from the Lemurians are "semi-animal creatures". These latter include "the Tasmanians, a portion of the Australians and a mountain tribe in China."
There are also "considerable numbers of the mixed Lemuro-Atlantean peoples produced by various crossings with such semi-human stocks -- e.g., the Veddhas of Ceylon, most of the remaining Australians, Bushmen, Negritos, Andaman Islanders, etc."


Aryan Teuton
The subraces of the Aryan Fifth Root Race include the first subrace, the Hindu, which migrated from the "City of the Bridge" on the white island in the middle of the Gobi inland sea to India in 60,000 BC; the second subrace, the Arabian, which migrated from the "City of the Bridge" to Arabia in 40,000 BC; the third subrace, the Persian, which migrated from the "City of the Bridge" to Persia in 30,000 BC; the fourth subrace, the Celts, which migrated from the "City of the Bridge" to Western Europe beginning in 20,000 BC (the Mycenaean Greeks are regarded as an offshoot of the Celtic subrace that colonized Southeast Europe); and the fifth, and purest subrace, the Teutonic (see right), which also migrated from the "City of the Bridge" to what is now Germany beginning in 20,000 BC.


© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012
The German Völkisch Theosophists, however, adapted the Theosophical beliefs.
While accepting the general theory of Root Races, and in particular the development of the Teutonic Aryan Race, they emphasis ed the anti-Semitic element in this teaching by grafting upon it certain Gnostic (see left) teachings.

The Gnostics held that, in addition to the primal source of being there was a hierarchy of spiritual beings, often referred to as the Æons (from the archaic αἰϝών), and  Archons (ἄρχοντες Greek for Rulers or Lords).

The greatest of the Archons was the δημιουργός - dēmiourgos (see right) - whom the Jews knew as  יהוה - YHWH - also El Shaddai or El Elyon - the God of the Old Testament (see below).
While the Aryan race evolved as part of the plan created by the primal source of being, (the One through - the emanations of the Æons), this Demiurge created the Semetic race as a later act, to be his servants in the material creation he had brought about - and so the Jews were the 'creation of a lesser god'.

The Old Testament, and to a lesser extent the New Testament was considered to be a record of the relationship that existed between the Demiurge and his 'chosen people' - 'chosen' because they were his creation.
Much of this relationship initially takes place in the form pyrotechnic displays on mountain tops, as יהוה -YHWH - presents himself as a powerful mountain and storm god.

Later, he formalises his contact with his 'chosen people', by giving instructions for the creation of a strange device known as  אָרוֹן הַבְּרִית‎ ʾĀrôn Hābərît - the 'Ark of the Covenant'.
More than simply a chest to hold the Tablets of the Law, the design, construction and materials of the Ark were dictated directly by the Demiurge.
In fact it was far more that just a gold plated box - it was credited with being able to deal death, even to its own priests, and to destroy armies and lay waste to whole cities.
Far from being just a chest, it was literally the 'throne' of the Demiurge - the Great Archon - on earth - and the Archon would communicate from between the wings of the Cherubim (כְּרוּבִים.)
In addition, the Demiurge communicate by using the Umin and Thummim (see right), two precious stones that were part of the Jewish High Priest's breastplate.
And the Demiurge was intent on ensuing that his people - his 'chosen people' - the Jewish race - would only worship him - 'Thou shalt have no other Gods before me.'
Here is revealed the fact that YHWH is simply one - if the highest - of the many archons - and therefore he demands that he should be pre-eminent.
Much of the Old testament recounts how YHWH delivers up those who oppose him into the hands of the Jews, and how he repeatedly instructs the Jews to commit the most appalling genocide on their - and  therefore his -  enemies.

In the end the same Archon promises his 'chosen people' a throne that will last forever, and a kingdom that will encompass the whole earth (see right).
His promises, however, prove to be baseless, as he is merely an archon, and despite his immense power, is unable to control the 'Universal Will'.
Being the creation of an evil 'god', whose intention was the usurp the 'Universal Will, the German Occultists saw the Semites as a power for evil in the world, and more particularly a group which had the intention to destroy the Aryan race.
It is not surprising, therefore, that we find that these occult groups espoused an extreme from of anti-Semitism.


One of the Strongest proponents of this more extreme of anti-Semitism was Lanz von Liebenfels (see left).

Lanz von Liebenfels (July 19, 1874 – April 22, 1954) was a Austrian occultist, former Cistercian monk and founder of 'Theozoologie'.
He was a friend of student of Guido von List, and helped to found the "Guido-von-List-Gesellschaft" (Guido von List society) in 1905.
In 1907 Liebenfels founded the "Ordo novi templi" (Order of the New Templars).
He published the magazine 'Ostara', (Briefbücherei der Blonden und Mannesrechtler - named after the Teutonic goddess of Spring - see right) from 1905 till 1930.

Lambach Abbey
And here we have a connection with Hitler - because Adolf Hitler was an avid reader of  'Ostara', during his unhappy stay in Vienna - and even met von Liebenfels in Vienna.
There is a theory that the young Hitler met Liebenfels at Lambach Abbey, in Austria. At the time, Liebenfels was conducting scriptural research while staying at the abbey, and Hitler, at the same time, was a pupil at the Abbey School, and a chorister.


There have been many theories to explain Adolf Hitler's anti-Semitism - most of which are totally spurious.

It has been suggested that Hitler harbored a hatred for Dr Bloch (see left), the doctor who treated Hitler's mother - believing that Bloch had either been negligent in treating his mother, or had even killed his mother.

This is, in fact, untrue.
Hitler was eternally grateful to Bloch, and protected him, from the time he came to power until the end of the war, and Kuzibeck describes Hitler's gratitude to Bloch in detail.
It has also been suggested that Hitler had sexual relations with a Jewish prostitute and caught a venereal disease, however, Kubizeck makes it quite clear that Hitler was infatuated with Stephanie (see right), and that he was incapable of speaking to girls, let alone propositioning them for sex.
Despite meticulous investigation, historical researchers have been unable to find a personal reason for Hitler’s hatred of the Jews.
Hitler was not refused admission to art school by a Jewish professor, nor was he infected with syphilis by a Jewish prostitute - as we have stated before - these myths have been definitively discounted through meticulous research.

Even Hitler himself did not cite a negative personal experience with Jews.
In 'Mein Kampf', only an encounter with a ‘figure in a long caftan with black hair’ is mentioned, which reputedly led Hitler to address the arguments of anti-Semites for the first time.
Analysis of the accounts of contemporary witnesses indicates that Hitler not only had no negative experiences with Jews in Vienna, but in fact had a remarkable number of Jewish friends and business associates.
At the time Hitler resided in Vienna, around eight to ten per cent of the city’s population were Jews.
This was also the approximate ratio of Jewish residents in the men’s hostel Hitler lived in.
However, the proportion of Jews among Hitler’s associates was far higher than this percentage.
In fact, it almost seems as if the young Hitler preferred to spend his time with Jews.
Historian Brigitte Hamann examined these connections in her book 'Hitler’s Vienna' (Hitlers Wien, 1996) in more detail; the results of her investigations are summarized below.

'Hitler sold his paintings almost exclusively to Jewish dealers: Morgenstern, Landsberger and Altenberg.
The master glazier Samuel Morgenstern was his most consistent buyer.
The art dealer Peter Jahn, who later searched for Hitler’s artwork on behalf of the NSDAP, attested to the extremely good relationship between Hitler and Morgenstern.
Morgenstern introduced the young painter to private clients, including the Jewish lawyer Dr Joseph Feingold, who also became a patron.
Not only could Altenberg not remember Hitler making any anti-Semitic statements, he in fact asserts that Hitler seems to have preferred Jewish dealers.
Hitler’s men’s hostel friend Hanisch recalled that Hitler had often said that
you can do business with the Jews because they’re the only ones prepared to take a risk’.
Hansich’s statement is confirmed by an anonymous resident at the hostel in the spring of 1912: ‘Hitler got on extremely well with Jews, and once said they were a clever people who stick together better than the Germans.’
Hitler’s best friend during his time at the men’s hostel was a Jewish copper polisher named Joseph Neumann, with whom Hitler once disappeared for a week.
Another Jewish resident, Siegfried Löffner, took Hitler’s side when he felt cheated by another (non-Jewish) resident, and reported the incident to the police.
Hitler also maintained a friendly relationship with the one-eyed Jewish locksmith Simon Robinson, which led Robinson to support Hitler using money from his disability allowance.
Rudolf Redlich from Moravia was another Jewish friend of Hitler.
While Hitler was still living with August Kubizek, his roommate took him along to a family music evening held by an affluent Jewish family called the Jahodas.
Afterwards, Hitler had only positive comments to make about his hosts, and absolutely nothing critical to say.
The Jewish general practitioner from Linz, Dr Bloch (see above), who treated Hitler’s mother, received hand-painted postcards from Hitler for years, and on these postcards Hitler expressed his gratitude.
As the status of Jews deteriorated dramatically under during the Third Reich, Dr Bloch managed to get a petition through to Hitler.
Hitler responded immediately, and protected the doctor and his wife.
In 1940, Dr Bloch and his wife emigrated to the USA.


Hitler, in Leonding, Vienna and his early days in Munich was no more anti-Semitic that most people at the time, after all, anti-Semitism was endemic, not only in Germany and Austria, but also throughout Europe, as well in England and the USA.
It was only after his close contact with the 'Thule Gesselschaft', and Dietrich Eckart (see right), that Hitler's anti-Semitism took on the ideological, philosophical and occult nature, which from then on colored his outlook on the question of race.

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The influence of Eckart can be seen in the following excerpt from 'Mein Kampf' (Vol 1 - Chapter 2) written in 1924:

'The Jewish race rejects the aristocratic principle of Nature and replaces the eternal privileges of power and strength by the mass of numbers and their dead weight.
Thus it denies the value of personality in man, contests the significance of nationality and race, and thereby withdraws from humanity the premise of its existence and its culture.
As a foundation of the universe, this doctrine would bring about the end of any order intellectually conceivable to man.
And as, in this greatest of all recognizable organisms, the result of an application of such a law could only be chaos, on earth it could only be destruction for the inhabitants of this planet.
If  the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.
Eternal Nature inexorably avenges the infringement of her commands.
Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.'
Adolf Hitler

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the full illustrated text of
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012


Race is a classification system used to categorize humans into large and distinct populations or groups by heritable phenotypical characteristics, geographic ancestry, physical appearance, and ethnicity.
In the early twentieth century the term was often used, in its taxonomic sense, to denote genetically diverse human populations whose members possessed similar phenotypes.
This sense of "race" is still used within forensic anthropology (when analyzing skeletal remains), biomedical research, and race-based medicine.
Each race can be described as a subspecies or breed of the species 'Homo Sapiens'.
A subspecies is a taxonomic category below species.
It is often applied when two populations can potentially interbreed, but do not, due to geographic separation.
A subspecies (breed - race or rasse) is an aggregate of phenotypically similar populations of a species, inhabiting a geographic subdivision of the range of a species, and differing taxonomically from other populations of the species.
It is a distinct evolutionary lineage within a species.
This definition requires that a subspecies be genetically differentiated due to barriers to genetic exchange that have persisted for long periods of time; that is, the subspecies must have historical continuity in addition to current genetic differentiation.
There are often differences unique to each population.
Academic studies of race led to the modern concept of the 'Herrenrasse' (master race), which posited a hierarchy of races based, partly, on darkness of skin color.
('Herrenrasse'  should not be confused with the term  'Ubermensch'.
The former is the precursor of the latter.)

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Arthur De Gobineau
The concept of the 'master race', (herrenrasse), was largely initially developed by Count Joseph Arthur De Gobineau (see right).
Gobineau's basic concept, as further refined and developed by German Occultists, places the black Aboriginal Australians and "African savages" at the bottom of the hierarchy, while the white Aryans (primarily Northern and Western Europeans consisting of Germans, Finnish, Swedish, Icelanders, Norwegians, Danish, British, French, Northern Italians, and Dutch) were at the top; olive-skinned Southern Europeans (Spanish, Southern Italians, Greeks and Portuguese, i.e. those of what was then called the Mediterranean race, which was regarded as another sub-race of the Caucasian race) in the upper middle ranks.
Slavs - referred to as untermensch (lower-men) - were placed lower on the scale because they were regarded as primarily of the Alpine race rather than the Nordic race, and thus fit only to be peasants.
Those of the olive-skinned Semitic race were considered to be most dangerous because they had their own plan for world domination, a conspiracy that had to be opposed by all thoughtful Aryans.
The Semites were classed along with those of the yellow Mongoloid race (including its offshoots the brown Malayan race and the red American Indian race), the Dravidian race, the Hamitic race, and mixed-race people such as Eurasians, the bronze Mestizos, Mulattos, Afro-Asians, and Zambos.

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© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
(Occult Origins of the Aryan Race)

DIE 'HERRENRASSE' - The 'Master Race'

The concept of the Herrenrasse is partially related to the idea of the Übermensch (Over-man or Superman) - although both concepts are separate. The Übermensch was a philosophical concept in the writings of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (see right).
He posited the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 book 'Also Sprach Zarathustra' - (Thus Spoke Zarathustra) (see left).
In Nietzsche's terms the Übermensch was "the ideal aim of spiritual development, and more than just a biological goal."
The German Occultists and Thulists, however, rightly saw that there could be no spiritual development without a concomitant physical (biological), and therefore racial transformation.
('Herrenrasse'  should not be confused with the term  'Ubermensch'. The former is the precursor of the latter.)
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2015
The Thule Swastika
As Hitler said:
"It is my ultimate aim to perform an act of creation, a divine operation, the goal of a biological mutation which will result in an unprecedented exaltation of the human race, and the appearance of a new race of heroes, demi-gods and god-men".

The origins of the Thulist version of the theory of the master race were in 19th-century racial theories of Count Joseph Arthur De Gobineau, who argued that cultures degenerated when distinct races mixed - (see above).
Proponents of Nordic theory further argued that Nordic peoples had developed innate toughness and determination due to the harsh, challenging climate in which they evolved.
The racial ideal of these theorists was the tall, blond and light eyed Nordic individual.

Tall, Blond Nordic 
Arthur Schopenhauer
The philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (see left) was one of the earliest proponents of a theory presenting a hierarchical racial model of history, attributing civilizational primacy to the "white races", who gained their sensitivity and intelligence by refinement in the rigorous north.
Accordingly, the highest civilization and culture is found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is almost always fairer in color than the rest.

(Hans Frank - see right, Hitler's personal lawyer, stated that Hitler carried a copy of Schopenhauer's book 'Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung' (The World as Will and Representation) with him wherever he went throughout World War I.)
Nevertheless, such theorists usually accepted that considerable variety of hair and eye color existed even within the racial categories they recognized.
Contrary to the popular 'urban legend myth', the National Socialists did not discriminate against "Aryans" who did not have blond hair or light-eyes, or had only one of these features.
Adolf Hitler and other Nazi officials had dark hair and were still considered to be a Aryan.
(The term Aryan derives from the Sanskrit word (a´rya), which derived from arya, the original Indo-Iranian autonym meaning 'noble')
The postulated superiority of these people was said to make them born leaders, and hence to appellation "Herrenrasse" - (Master-race)

Other authors included Guido von List (see left), and his associate Lanz von Liebenfels (see right), and the British racial theorist Houston Stewart Chamberlain, all of whom felt that the white race and Germanic peoples were superior to others, and that given the purification of the white race and German people from the races who were "polluting" it, a new millennial age of Aryan 'god-men' would arrive.

By the late 19th century and early 20th century, it was posited that the Indo-Europeans (then generally also referred to as Aryans) made up the highest branch of humanity because their civilization was the most spiritually and technologically advanced.
This reasoning simultaneously intertwined with Nordicism which proclaimed the "Nordic race" as the "purest" form of said Aryan race.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2017
die Herrenrasse
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2017
die Herrenrasse
In Hitler's ideology the concept of the superiority of the Aryan races was crystallized in the term 'die Herrenrasse' or 'das Herrenvolk'  (master race), and in particular the Nordic peoples which represented an ideal and "pure race" that was the purest representation of the original racial stock of those who were called the Proto-Aryans.
German racial specialists maintained that the Poles and Northern Russians had some Nordic traits such as light hair and light eye color, and could be considered racially fit for Germanisation.
They also considered that a certain percentages of Czechs, Ukrainians, and Belarusians to be racially fit to be German.
The "Nordic" race was the purest example of the original racial stock of those who were then called the Proto-Aryans, whom the German Völkisch philosophers believed to have prehistorically dwelt on the North German Plain, and to have ultimately originated from the lost continent of Atlantis.

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die Herrenrasse
The German Völkisch philosophers declared that the Nordics, (the Germanic peoples), were the true Aryans because they were less racially mixed with "non-native" Indo-European peoples than other people of what were then called the Aryan peoples, such as the Slavic peoples, the Romance peoples and the Indo-Iranian peoples.
Based on this claim that the "Nordic" peoples were superior to all other races, the German Völkisch philosophers believed the Aryans were entitled to world domination.
This concept is known as Nordicism.
The German Völkisch philosophers considered some Russians, some Poles, some Czechs and some Belarusians to be sufficient subjects for Germanisation in order to be considered Aryan, however, it was believed that, for instance, the Polish people were too patriotic and would ultimately resist Germanisation.
This resulted in what resulted in the 'Generalplan Ost', according to which most of the Slavs from East-Central Europe were destined to be expelled from the European continent by the Third Reich.
Mendelian genetics was rediscovered in 1900, providing the basis of the genetic inheritance maps used by Völkisch  eugenicists to identify persons of the Jewish race.
By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was posited that the Aryans made up the highest branch of humanity because their civilization was the most technologically advanced.
This reasoning simultaneously intertwined with Nordicism which proclaimed the "Nordic race" as the "purest" form of said Aryan race.
The hierarchy of races is also based on darkness of skin color.
This concept was largely initially developed by Count Joseph Arthur De Gobineau.
Gobineau's basic concept, as further refined and developed in Völkisch theory, places the black Aboriginal Australians and "African savages" at the bottom of the hierarchy, while the white Northern and Western European Aryans (consisting of Germans, Swedish, Icelanders, Norwegians, Danish, British, French, Irish and Dutch) are at the top; white olive-skinned Southern Europeans (consisting of the Spanish, Italians, Greeks and Portuguese, i.e. those of what is called the Mediterranean race, which was regarded as another subrace of the Caucasian race) in the upper middle ranks; Slavs (Even though the Slavs are white and of Indo-European ancestry), were placed lower on the scale because they were regarded as primarily of the Alpine race rather than the Nordic race, and thus fit only to be peasants.
Also those of the olive-skinned Semitic race (another sub-race of the Caucasian race) were in the middle rank (it was because the Jews, being Semites, were clever that they were so dangerous - they had their own plan for Jewish world domination, a conspiracy that had to be opposed by all Aryans); and those of the yellow Mongoloid race (including its offshoots the brown Malayan race and the red American Indian race), the Dravidian race, the Hamitic race (regarded as another sub-race of the Caucasian race), and mixed-race people such as Eurasians, the bronze Mestizos, Mulattos, Afro-Asians, and Zambos in the lower middle ranks.

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EUGENICS - 'The Science of Race'

Eugenics came to play a prominent role in this racial thought as a way to improve and maintain the "purity" of the Aryan master race.
Eugenics was a concept adhered to by many thinkers in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s, such as Margaret Sanger, Marie Stopes, H. G. Wells (see right), Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, Emile Zola, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes (see  left), John Harvey Kellogg, Linus Pauling and Sidney Webb.
Aldous Huxley’s best-selling novel Brave New World, about a future society based on eugenics, was published in 1932.
The Thulists took this concept to the limit by establishing a program to systematically genetically enhance the Nordic Aryans themselves, through a program of eugenics to create a super-race.

Hitler's Views on Eugenics

Adolf Hitler read 'racial hygiene' tracts during his imprisonment in Landsberg Prison.
He thought that Germany could become strong again only if the state applied the principles of racial hygiene and eugenics to German society.
Hitler believed the nation had become weak, corrupted by the infusion of degenerate elements into its racial stock.
These had to be removed quickly.
He also believed that the strong and the racially pure should be encouraged to have more children, and that the weak and the racially impure should be discouraged to breed - or prevented from breeding.
The racialism, and idea of competition, termed 'Social Darwinism' in 1944, were discussed by European scientists, and also in the Vienna press during the 1920s.

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism is an theory of biological science that seeks to apply biological concepts of evolutionary theory to society and political structures, often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society may lead to social progress as superior groups compete with inferior ones.
Social Darwinism is generally understood to use the concepts of 'the struggle for existence' and 'survival of the fittest' to explain economic and political developments in society.
These theories have formed the basis of ideas of eugenics, scientific racism, imperialism, and the struggle between national or racial groups.
Many thinkers in 19th Century Europe have maintained that social Darwinism is a logical entailment of a belief in evolutionary theory.
Despite the fact that social Darwinism bears Charles Darwin's name, it is also linked today with others, notably Herbert Spencer, Thomas Malthus, and Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics. 
The publication of Ernst Haeckel's best-selling 'Welträtsel' ('Riddle of the Universe') in 1899 brought social Darwinism, and earlier ideas of racial hygiene, to a wider audience.
His recapitulation theory was not Darwinism, but rather attempted to combine the ideas of Goethe, Lamarck and Darwin.

Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 – August 9, 1919), was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularized Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarizes its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures ('Kunstformen der Natur' -, "Art Forms of Nature"). As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträtsel (1895–1899, in English, The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel).

It was adopted by emerging social sciences to support the concept that non-European societies were "primitive" in an early stage of development towards the European ideal.
Haeckel's works led to the formation of the 'Monist League' in 1904 with many prominent citizens among its members, including the Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Ostwald.
By 1909, it had a membership of some six thousand people.
The theory of evolution had been generally accepted in Germany in the 19th Century.
In 1876, Ernst Haeckel had discussed the selective infanticide policy of the Greek city of ancient Sparta.
In Hitler's 'Second Book', which was unpublished during the Third Reich, Hitler praised Sparta, adding that he considered Sparta to be the first "Völkisch State".
He endorsed what he perceived to be an early eugenics treatment of deformed children:
'The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, was more decent, and in truth a thousand times more humane, than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject, and indeed at any price, and yet takes the life of a hundred thousand healthy children in consequence of birth control or through abortions, in order subsequently to breed a race of degenerates burdened with illnesses.'

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012
'Today a new faith is stirring: the myth of blood, the faith that along with blood we are defending the divine nature of man as a whole.'

Alfred Rosenberg

"The real message of 'Parsifal is pure, noble blood, in whose protection and glorification the brotherhood of the initiated have come together." 

Adolf Hitler

The primacy of the blood - which should be interpreted as symbolic of race - was essential to the ideology of National Socialism.
Völkisch philosophy developed several theories concerning races.
They claimed to be able to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy of human race; - the "master race" was said to be the most pure stock of the Aryan race, which was narrowly defined as being identical with the Nordic race, followed by other sub-races of the Aryan race.
Nordicism, also "Nordic theory," is an ideology of racial supremacy that claims that a Nordic race, within the greater Caucasian race, constituted a master race.
This ideology was popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in some Central and Northern European countries as well as in North America.
By the early twentieth century the concept of a "masterly" Nordic race had become so familiar that the British psychologist William McDougall, writing in 1920, could say with confidence:
'Among all the disputes and uncertainties of the ethnographers about the races of Europe, one fact stands out clearly—namely, that we can distinguish a race of northerly distribution and origin, characterized physically by fair colour of hair and skin and eyes, by tall stature and dolichocephaly (i.e. long shape of head), and mentally by great independence of character, individual initiative, and tenacity of will. Many names have been used to denote this type, ... . It is also called the Nordic type.'
Nordicists stated that Nordics had formed upper tiers of ancient civilizations, even in the Mediterranean civilizations of antiquity, which had declined once this dominant race had been assimilated.
In Germany Nordicism was known under the term "Nordischer Gedanke" (Nordic thought).
This phrase was coined by the German eugenicists Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz.
It appeared in their 1921 work 'Human Heredity', which dealt with the innate superiority of the Nordic race.
Adapting the arguments of Schopenhauer and others to Darwinian theory, they argued that the qualities of initiative and will-power identified by earlier writers had arisen from natural selection, because of the tough landscape in which Nordic peoples evolved.
This had ensured that weaker individuals had not survived.
This argument was derived from earlier eugenicist and 'Social Darwinist' ideas.
According to the authors, the Nordic race arose in the ice age, from, quite a small group which, under stress of rapidly changing conditions (climate, beasts of the chase) was exposed to exceptionally rigorous selection and was persistently inbred, thus acquiring the peculiar characteristics which persist today as the exclusive heritage of the Nordic race....Philological, archaeological and anthropological researches combine to indicate that the primal home of the Indo-Germanic [i.e Aryan] languages must have been in Northern Europe.
By this time, Germany was well-accustomed to theories of race and racial superiority due to the long presence of the Völkish movement, the philosophy that Germans constituted a unique people, or 'volk', linked by common blood.
While Volkism was popular mainly among Germany's lower classes and was more a romanticized version of ethnic nationalism, Nordicism attracted German anthropologists and eugenicists.
Hans F. K. Günther, one of Fischer's students, first defined "Nordic thought" in his programmatic book 'Der Nordische Gedanke unter den Deutschen'.
He became the most influential German in this field.
His 'Short Ethnology of the German People' (1929) was very widely circulated.
At the bottom of this hierarchy were "parasitic" races (of non-"Aryan" origin) or "Untermenschen" ("sub-humans"), which were perceived to be dangerous to society.
The term 'Untermensch' was applied to the Slavs, including Russians, Serbs and ethnic Poles.
Slavs were viewed as an inferior group, who were fit for enslavement, expulsion.
Although some exceptions were made for some Slavs that were said not to belong to Jewish Bolshevism, and were deemed fit enough to be Germanized.
Lowest of all in the Völkisch racial policy were Gypsies and Jews.
With the rise of National Socialism, Nordic theory became the norm within German culture.
In some cases the "Nordic" concept became an almost abstract ideal, rather than a mere racial category.
In 1942 Hitler stated in private,
'I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration. If at the time of the migrations, while the great racial currents were exercising their influence, our people received so varied a share of attributes, these latter blossomed to their full value only because of the presence of the Nordic racial nucleus.'
Hitler and Himmler planned to use the SS as the basis for the racial "regeneration" of Europe following the final victory of the Third Reich.
The SS was to be a racial elite chosen on the basis of "pure" Nordic qualities.
Addressing officers of the SS-Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler" Himmler stated:
'The ultimate aim for those 11 years during which I have been the Reichsfuehrer SS has been invariably the same: to create an order of 'good blood', which is able to serve Germany; which unfailingly and without sparing itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always be replaced; to create an order which will spread the idea of 'Nordic blood' so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it from the viewpoint of grand policy, Nordic blood, in great quantities and to an extent worth mentioning, will fight against us.'
The Third Reich developed an elaborate system of propaganda to diffuse these theories.

Hitler-Jugend Trompeter
Hitler-Jugend Swimming Team
National Socialist architecture, for example, was used to create the "new order" and improve the "Aryan race."
Sports were also seen by the National Socialists as a way to "regenerate the race".
The Hitler Youth, (see below) founded in 1922, had among its basic motivations the training of future "Aryan supermen", and future soldiers who would faithfully fight for the Third Reich.
Cinema was also used to promote racist theories, under the direction of Joseph Goebbels' Propagandaministerium.

Alfred Rosenberg - one of the principal ideologues of the Nazi party and editor of the Nazi paper 'Völkischer Beobachter', as well as a long time associate of Dietrich Eckart, Hitler's mentor, made the concept of blood central to his monumental work 'Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts' - (The Myth of the Twentieth Century).
It was the most influential Nazi text after Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'.
The titular "myth" is "the myth of blood", which under the sign of the swastika unchains the racial world-revolution.
It is the awakening of the race soul, which after long sleep, victoriously ends the race chaos.

© Copyright Peter Crawford 2012
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Rosenberg was inspired by Eckhart (see right), the racist theories of Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Richard Wagner's romanticism, and also by Nordicism and Aryanism.
He believed that God created man as separate races, not as individuals or mankind as a whole, and that only the Aryan race has a soul.
'Der Mythus' was conceived as a sequel to Chamberlain's 'Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts'
Rosenberg's racial interpretation of history concentrates on the negative influence of the Jewish race in contrast to the Aryan race.
He equates the latter with the Nordic peoples of northern Europe and also includes the Berbers from North Africa and the upper classes of Ancient Egypt.
According to Rosenberg, modern culture has been corrupted by Semitic influences, which have produced degenerate modern art, along with moral and social degeneration.
In contrast, Aryan culture is defined by innate moral sensibility and an energetic will to power.
Rosenberg believed that the higher races must rule over the lower and not interbreed with them, because cross-breeding destroys the divine combination of physical heredity and spirit.
He uses an organic metaphor of the race and the State, and argues that the Germans must purify the race soul by eliminating non-Aryan elements in much the same ruthless and uncompromising way in which a surgeon would cut a cancer from a diseased body.
In Rosenberg's view of world history, migrating Aryans founded various ancient civilizations which later declined and fell due to inter-marriage with lesser races.

Another myth, to which he gave "allegorical" credence, was the idea of Atlantis (see left), which he felt might preserve a memory of an ancient Aryan homeland:
'And so today the long derived hypothesis becomes a probability, namely that from a northern centre of creation which, without postulating an actual submerged Atlantic continent, we may call Atlantis, swarms of warriors once fanned out in obedience to the ever renewed and incarnate Nordic longing for distance to conquer and space to shape.'

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Closely related to  Rosenberg's study of blood and race is the concept of 'Blut und Boden' - (Blood and Soil).
This is an ideology that focuses on ethnicity based on two factors, descent (Blut - Blood of a race) and Heimat - (homeland - Boden - Soil).
It celebrates the relationship of a people to the land they occupy and cultivate, and it places a high value on the virtues of rural living.
The German expression was coined in the late 19th century, in tracts espousing racialism and national romanticism.
It produced a regionalist literature, with some social criticism.
This romantic attachment was widespread prior to the rise of National Socialism.
Ultranationalists, pre dating National Socialism, often supported country living as more healthy, with the 'Artaman League' sending urban children to the countryside to work in part in hopes of transforming them into 'Wehrbauern' (warrior farmers).

Richard Walther Darré popularized the phrase at the time of the rise of National Socialism in Germany.
He wrote a book called 'Neuadel aus Blut und Boden' (New Nobility of Blood And Soil) in 1930, which proposed a systemic eugenics program, arguing for breeding as a cure-all for all the problems plaguing the state.
Darré was an influential member of the Nazi party and a noted race theorist who assisted the party greatly in gaining support among common Germans outside the cities.
Prior to their ascension to power, National Socialist ideologues called for a return from the cities to the countryside.
This agrarian sentiment allowed opposition to both the middle class and the aristocracy, and presented the farmer as a superior figure beside the moral swamp of the city.
"The state is a means to an end.

Its end lies in the preservation and advancement of a community of physically and psychically homogeneous creatures. 

This preservation itself comprises first of all existence as a race and thereby permits the free development of all the forces dormant in this race.

Thus, the highest purpose of a völkisch state is concern for the preservation of those original racial elements which bestow culture and create the beauty and dignity of a higher mankind.
We, as Aryans, can conceive of the state only as the living organism of a nationality which not only assures the preservation of this nationality, but by the development of its spiritual and ideal abilities leads it to the highest freedom."
Adolf Hitler

Hitler on Natural Selection

In Mein Kampf (1924-25), Hitler expressed his views on the natural world, largely as an analogy and justification for his views on human society.
It is clear that he saw struggle for survival, and natural selection based on this struggle, as crucial to the lives of animals, as outlined these excerpts:
'Whatever survives these hardships of existence has been tested and tried a thousandfold, hardened and renders fit to continue the process of procreation; so that the same thorough selection will begin all over again. By thus dealing brutally with the individual and recalling him the very moment he shows that he is not fitted for the trials of life, Nature preserves the strength of the race and the species and raises it to the highest degree of efficiency.'
By leaving the process of procreation unchecked and by submitting the individual to the hardest preparatory tests in life, Nature selects the best from an abundance of single elements and stamps them as fit to live and carry on the conservation of the species.'
This view of "natural selection" as applied to society, and can be described as Social Darwinism, which originated from Herbert Spencer.

On Interbreeding

Hitler was vehemently opposed to racial interbreeding (miscegenation), and used his views on nature to argue that it was abhorrent.
He wrote of an "iron law of Nature" which compels creatures to procreate only with their own kind.
'Each animal mates only with one of its own species. The titmouse cohabits only with the titmouse, the finch with the finch, the stork with the stork, the field-mouse with the field-mouse, the house-mouse with the house-mouse, the wolf with the she-wolf, etc.'
Hitler saw this "iron law" as resulting in a fixity of species and their characteristics.
'This urge for the maintenance of the unmixed breed, which is a phenomenon that prevails throughout the whole of the natural world, results not only in the sharply defined outward distinction between one species and another but also in the internal similarity of characteristic qualities which are peculiar to each breed or species. The fox remains always a fox, the goose remains a goose, and the tiger will retain the character of a tiger. The only difference that can exist within the species must be in the various degrees of structural strength and active power, in the intelligence, efficiency, endurance, etc., with which the individual specimens are endowed.'
It is certainly true that procreation between distinct animal species rarely occurs, and that when it does, as Hitler correctly noted, the offspring is usually sterile.
On Higher and Lower Orders

In applying these concepts to human miscegenation, Hitler stated that:
'If Nature does not wish that weaker individuals should mate with the stronger, she wishes even less that a superior race should intermingle with an inferior one; because in such a case all her efforts, throughout hundreds of thousands of years, to establish an evolutionary higher stage of being, may thus be rendered futile.'
'The offspring will indeed be superior to the parent which stands in the biologically lower order of being, but not so high as the higher parent. For this reason it must eventually succumb in any struggle against the higher species. Such mating contradicts the will of Nature towards the selective improvements of life in general. The favourable preliminary to this improvement is not to mate individuals of higher and lower orders of being but rather to allow the complete triumph of the higher order. The stronger must dominate and not mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher nature. . . . For if such a law did not direct the process of evolution then the higher development of organic life would not be conceivable at all.'

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